The fine structure and morphological organization of non-myelinated nerve fibres were studied by ultra-thin sectioning and electron microscopy in peripheral nerves, autonomic nerves and dorsal roots. Several non-myelinated fibres share the cytoplasm of a Schwann cell. The Schwann cells of non-myelinated fibres form a syncytium. The fibres are incompletely surrounded by Schwann cell cytoplasm and are suspended in the cytoplasm by mesaxons formed by the plasma membranes of the Schwann cell. The various relationships of mesaxon and nerve fibre are described. Non-myelinated fibres which do not share a Schwann cell are seen very frequently in the sciatic nerve of a new-born mouse but become less common as myelination proceeds and are rare in adults. It is therefore suggested that in developing peripheral nerves, the non-myelinated fibres that are destined to myelinate are not organized into groups within a single Schwann cell, even before their myelin sheath has appeared; they are, at least for the ages examined here, individuals in relation to a surrounding individual Schwann cell. It is also suggested that the non-myelinated fibres that will never acquire a myelin sheath are organized in a developing peripheral nerve in the same manner as in the adult nerve--several fibres sharing a single Schwann cell that is part of a syncytial system of Schwann cells. Thus, in a developing peripheral nerve, it appears that two types of non-myelinated fibres are present--one destined to myelinate and lying alone in its own Schwann cell and the other, destined to remain unmyelinated and sharing, along with other non-myelinated fibres of the same type, a Schwann cell. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to the development of nerve fibres and possible physiological importance.