The retinae of monkey and man have been studied by electron microscopy to identify cell types, their processes and synaptic contacts. In the inner plexiform layer, the morphological characteristics of the three types of cells (bipolar, ganglion and amacrine) are described and seven synaptic relationships are identified. The bipolar terminals contain ribbons at points of synaptic contact, and, at these points, there are typically two postsynaptic processes, one a ganglion cell dendrite, the other an amacrine cell process. This synaptic arrangement is here termed a dyad. The amacrine cell processes themselves make synaptic contacts with ganglion cell dendrites and somata, other amacrine cell processes, and, most frequently, with the bipolar cell terminals. Often, the amacrine-bipolar contact is adjacent to a bipolar-amacrine junction, forming a reciprocal synaptic arrangement between the bipolar and the amacrine. In the more peripheral retina, large bipolar cell terminals (probably of rod bipolars) are occasionally observed adjacent to the perikarya of the ganglion cells. At these junctions, areas of fusion between the plasma membranes are seen, suggesting that such axosomatic junctions could be electrical. In the outer plexiform layer, synapses have been identified only in the receptor cell bases where receptor cells contact bipolar and horizontal cell processes. Synaptic contacts of the horizontal cells have not been clearly identified, but their strategic terminations in the receptor cell ending are described and interpreted as possibly synaptic. A model of the retina, based on the described anatomy, is presented and correlated with ganglion cell physiology.