There are three main objectives to the management of habitats for conservation: (1) the modification of successional changes in vegetation and its associated fauna; (2) the increase of the biotic diversity, or richness of a habitat; and (3) the conservation of rare or endangered species. The success of each of these rests largely upon the identification and manipulation of those environmental factors currently limiting the populations and communities which are wanted. Examples will be given of research in progress showing how this can aid each of these conservation objectives. One cannot alter a habitat to encourage one species, or group of species, without this having repercussions on other parts of the flora and fauna. For this reason, there must be a clear understanding of the objectives to be achieved and research into the best way of achieving them, before conservation can be put on a firm scientific basis.