Adult males from a colony of lesser rock hyrax found near the equator in Kenya exhibited an annual cycle of testicular activity characterized by intense spermatogenesis and elevated androgen status from May to July. Average masses of testes and seminal vesicles taken in these months were almost fourfold greater than those from September to January. During the months of peak testicular activity average diameters of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules were increased by approximately one half and total tubule length was doubled, compared with values for the quiescent months. Variable testicular development occurred during transitional intervals preceding and following peak testicular activity. From February to April thickening of the seminiferous epithelium and appearance of spermatozoa in the caput epididymidis signalled re-establishment of sperm production. In August shedding of germinal cells from the epithelium heralded impending failure of spermatogenesis. Evidence of an annual testicular cycle contradicted the prevalent belief that equatorial hyrax breed all year and suggested that the testicular cycle is a conservative element of hyracoid reproductive strategy.