The demonstration of depolarization-induced release of substance P, Met- and Leu-enkephalin, somatostatin, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and cholecystokinin-like material from various regions of rat brain in vitro supports the hypothesis that these and other neuropeptides may act as neurotransmitters. In each case the stimulus-evoked release, but not the basal release, of peptide was dependent on the presence of calcium ions in the external medium. The stimulus-evoked release of substance P from nerve terminals in rat substantia nigra may be regulated by presynaptic $\gamma $-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The possible existence of presynaptic opiate receptors on substance P-containing sensory nerve terminals may offer an explanation for the analgesic effects of opiates at spinal cord level, and for the existence of enkephalin neurons in substantia gelatinosa. Capsaicin releases substance P from spinal cord nerve terminals and may impair their function, while having no effect on substance P neurons in supraspinal regions. The possibility of cosecretion of peptide and amine products from the same cells is discussed.