Many aspects of the cellular immune system in the marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa, have been defined by using artificially transplanted allogeneic tissues. Rejections show specificity of `non-self' recognition, cytotoxic effector responses and short-term immunological memory. Histological investigations reveal a generalized mesohyl migration to the graft zone where archaeocytes line up at the allogeneic interface. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised to sponge cells have shown that little or no allogeneic cell mixing occurs at the graft interface and that certain mesohyl cell types do not appear to be directly involved in graft rejections. However, all mesohyl cell types are present in autograft fusion zones and in inflammatory responses to injury. The involvement of only some of the mesohyl cell types in graft rejections suggests specific interactions of an effector `immunocyte'.