Pollen analysis of 4 m of peat, swamp-soil and lake sediments dated from 0 to > 43800 years b.p. indicates the occurrence of three major pollen assemblage zones. During Zone 1 (11000-0 years b.p.) the area had temperate rainforest and the climate was warm, moist and interglacial. During Zone 2 (?25000-11000 years b.p.), correlated approximately with the last period of glaciation, the vegetation was mainly grassland and the climate was considerably colder than present. In late glacial times (14000-11000 years b.p.) pollen of shrub and tree taxa increased, especially during the later part of the period as the climate became warmer and moister. During Zone 3 (more than 43000-?25000 years b.p.) the vegetation was predominantly sub-alpine and alpine. This vegetation represents an interstadial assemblage for a lowland site. The climate was cool and moist. The results are compared with sites of similar age in Tasmania, and with sites from temperate forest environments in Chile and New Zealand.