The role of delayed density-dependent processes in the dynamics of animal populations poses a problem for ecologists; although generally assumed important in populations that show cyclic or chaotic fluctuations, little experimental evidence for such processes exist. Through manipulation of vole densities within enclosed areas it was shown that reproduction, recruitment, and body growth rate in introduced populations were negatively affected by high previous density. In addition, female movement patterns shifted, and territoriality as well as home-range size was increased after high density. The observed changes in female spacing-behaviour suggested that negative effects of previous density were partly mediated by social interactions, and agreed with the finding that smaller (less competitive) females were the ones suffering most from increased competition. Contrary to expectations from recent work, predation could be excluded as the cause of delayed density-dependence in this study. Instead, chemical analyses of a dominating food plant suggested that herbivory at high vole-density had delayed negative effects on food quality.