The energetic state of an animal strongly influences decisions that balances feeding against predation risk. Growth hormone increases the metabolic demands, which should elevate the feeding motivation of an animal. This, in turn, may increase the willingness to risk exposure to predators during feeding. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effect of growth hormone on the behavioural response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to simulated attacks from a model heron. After attacks, growth hormone treated trout foraged closer to the water surface, resumed feeding earlier, and ate more food than did control trout. Such behaviour should increase the susceptibility to aerial predation. Thus, predation may select against high endogenous growth hormone secretion in wild fish. Furthermore, genetic manipulations to increase growth hormone levels, intended to improve growth performance in aquaculture, may result in individuals with substantially altered behavioural patterns. In light of the increasing potential for interactions between farmed and wild fish, growth hormone transgenic fish may pose a threat to wild fish populations.