Female lesser wax moths (Achroia grisella) choose males based on characters of their ultrasonic advertisement signals. Because a female's opportunity to obtain increased somatic benefits by mating with a particular male is limited, we investigated whether females obtain genetic benefits for their offspring via mate choice. Controlled breeding experiments conducted under favourable food and temperature conditions showed that developmental characters are heritable, that sire attractiveness and offspring survivorship are unrelated, but that females mating with attractive signallers produce offspring who mature faster than the offspring of females mating with non–attractive signallers. However, under some unfavourable food or temperature conditions, it is the offspring of females mating with non–attractive males who mature faster; these offspring are heavier as well. Thus, the relationship between male attractiveness and offspring development is not environmentally robust, and support for a good genes model of mate choice in A. grisella is dependent on conditions. These findings suggest genotype–environment interactions and emphasize the necessity of testing sexual selection models under a range of natural environments.