Genealogical relatedness is thought to be an important causal factor in the evolution of cooperation. We inferred relatedness on the basis of 11 blood protein markers using the Queller and Goodnight index of relatedness in a macaque population with long–term demographic records. This estimate reflected independently determined pedigree relationships in our data set. Mean relatedness among all members of a social group was 0.10 but much higher levels of relatedness (0.30 to 0.47) were found among the members of matrilineal families with a high or intermediate social rank. Groups of dispersing males that had been born into the same social group were sometimes closely related (0.43 and 0.58), but they could also be less related (0.08). We found that the pattern of distribution of relatedness was associated with gene flow and differential reproduction in males, rather than with group fission and the presence of geographical barriers.