Artificial neural networks have become useful tools for probing the origins of perceptual biases in the absence of explicit information on underlying neuronal substrates. Preceding studies have shown that neural networks selected to recognize or discriminate simple patterns may possess emergent biases toward pattern size or symmetry—preferences often exhibited by real females—and have investigated how these biases shape signal evolution. We asked whether simple neural networks could evolve to respond to an actual mate recognition signal, the call of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus. We found that not only were networks capable of recognizing the call of the túngara frog, but that they made remarkably accurate quantitative predictions about how well females generalized to many novel calls, and that these predictions were stable over several architectures. The data suggest that the degree to which P. pustulosus females respond to a call may often be an incidental by–product of a sensory system selected simply for species recognition.