Sperm and female reproductive tract morphology are among the most rapidly evolving characters known in insects. To investigate whether interspecific variation in these traits results from divergent coevolution we examined testis size, sperm length and female reproductive tract morphology for evidence of correlated evolution using 13 species of diopsid stalk–eyed flies. We found that sperm dimorphism (the simultaneous production of two size classes of sperm by individual males) is ancestral and occurs in four genera while sperm monomorphism evolved once and persists in one genus. The length of ‘long–sperm’ types, though unrelated to male body or testis size, exhibits correlated evolution with two regions of the female reproductive tract, the spermathecae and ventral receptacle, where sperm are typically stored and used for fertilization, respectively. Two lines of evidence indicate that ‘short sperm’, which are probably incapable of fertilization, coevolve with spermathecae. First, loss of sperm dimorphism coincides phylogenetically with reduction or loss of spermathecae. Second, evolutionary change in short–sperm length correlates with change in spermathecal size but not spermathecal duct length or ventral receptacle length. Morphological coevolution between sperm and female reproductive tracts is consistent with a history of female–mediated selection on sperm length.