Parental investment in reproduction is adjusted according to potential benefits in terms of offspring survival and/or mating success. If male quality affects the reproductive success of a female, then females mating with high–quality males should invest more in reproduction. Although the subject has been of general interest, further experimental verification of the hypothesis is needed. We studied whether female bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) adjusted their maternal effort according to male quality, measured as mating success. To enable the measurement of maternal effort during nursing separately from male genetic effects the litters were cross-fostered. Further, the genetic background of male quality was examined. Male quality did not correlate with litter size or offspring size at birth. Offspring growth was positively related to food consumption and milk production of mothers. However, these direct measurements of maternal effort were independent of male quality. Male mating success appeared to be significantly heritable indicating that there are genetic benefits. Still, females did not adjust maternal effort according to the genetic quality of their offspring. We suggest that female bank voles gain significant genetic benefits from mating with high-quality males whereas they cannot improve their reproductive success by increasing maternal effort.