Predator–mediated plasticity in the morphology, life history and behaviour of prey organisms has been widely reported in freshwater ecosystems. Although clearly adaptive, similar responses have only recently been reported for terrestrial organisms. This is surprising as aphids are polyphenic and develop very rapidly compared with their predators and often produce very large colonies, which are attractive to predators. Therefore, one might expect terrestrial organisms like aphids to show a facultative change in their development in response to the presence of predators and other results have confirmed this. The results presented below indicate that the pea aphid responded to the tracks left by ladybird larvae by producing a greater proportion of winged offspring, which avoid the impending increased risk of predation by dispersing. Associated with this was a short–term increase in activity and reduction in fecundity. The black bean and vetch aphids, which are afforded some protection from ladybirds because they are ant attended and/or unpalatable, did not respond in this way to the presence of ladybird larvae.