Despite their widespread use as model organisms, the phylogenetic status of the around 520 species of freshwater crayfish is still in doubt. One hypothesis suggests two distinct origins of freshwater crayfish as indicated by their geographical distribution, with two centres of origin near the two present centres of diversity; one in south-eastern United States and the other in Victoria, Australia. An alternative theory proposes a single (monophyletic) origin of freshwater crayfish. Here we use over 3000 nucleotides from three different gene regions in estimating phylogenetic relationships among freshwater crayfish and related Crustacea. We show clear evidence for monophyly of freshwater crayfish and for the sister-group relationship between crayfish and clawed lobsters. Monophyly of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea is also supported. However, the monophyly of the family Cambaridae is questioned with the genus Cambaroides being associated with the Astacidae.