Mounting an immune response requires substantial energy, and it is well known that marked reductions in energy availability (e.g. starvation) can suppress immune function, thus increasing disease susceptibility and compromising survival. We tested the hypothesis that moderate reductions in energy availability impair humoral immunity. Specifically, we examined the effects of partial lipectomy (LIPx) on humoral immunity in two seasonally breeding rodent species, prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Animals received bilateral surgical removal of epididymal white adipose tissue (EWATx), inguinal white adipose tissue (IWATx) or sham surgeries and were injected with the antigen keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) either four or 12 weeks after surgery. In prairie voles, serum anti-KLH immunoglobulin G (IgG) did not differ significantly at four weeks. At 12 weeks, serum IgG was significantly reduced in IWATx, but not EWATx animals, compared with sham-operated animals. In Siberian hamsters, both IWATx and EWATx animals reduced serum IgG at four weeks. At 12 weeks, EWATx hamsters displayed a significant compensatory increase in IWAT pad mass compared with sham-operated hamsters, and serum IgG no longer differed from sham-operated animals. There was no significant increase in EWAT in IWATx hamsters compared with sham animals and IgG remained significantly reduced in IWATx hamsters. These results suggest that reductions in energy availability can impair humoral immunity.