We investigate the transmission dynamics of a certain type of foot–and–mouth disease (FMD) virus under experimental conditions. Previous analyses of experimental data from FMD outbreaks in non–homogeneously mixing populations of sheep have suggested a decline in viraemic level through serial passage of the virus, but these do not take into account possible variation in the length of the chain of viral transmission for each animal, which is implicit in the non–observed transmission process. We consider a susceptible–exposed–infectious–removed non–Markovian compartmental model for partially observed epidemic processes, and we employ powerful methodology (Markov chain Monte Carlo) for statistical inference, to address epidemiological issues under a Bayesian framework that accounts for all available information and associated uncertainty in a coherent approach. The analysis allows us to investigate the posterior distribution of the hidden transmission history of the epidemic, and thus to determine the effect of the length of the infection chain on the recorded viraemic levels, based on the posterior distribution of a p–value. Parameter estimates of the epidemiological characteristics of the disease are also obtained. The results reveal a possible decline in viraemia in one of the two experimental outbreaks. Our model also suggests that individual infectivity is related to the level of viraemia.