Insect flight muscle is known for its crystal-quality regularity of contractile protein arrangement within a sarcomere. We have previously shown by X-ray microdiffraction that the crystal-quality regularity in bumble-bee flight muscle is not confined within a sarcomere, but extends over the entire length of a myofibril (>1000 sarcomeres connected in series). Because of this, the whole myofibril may be regarded as a millimetre-long, natural single protein crystal. Using bright X-ray beams from a synchrotron radiation source, we examined how this long-range crystallinity has evolved among winged insects. We analysed >4600 microdiffraction patterns of quick-frozen myofibrils from 50 insect species, covering all the major winged insect orders. The results show that the occurrence of such long-range crystallinity largely coincides with insect orders with asynchronous muscle operation. However, a few of the more skilled fliers among lower-order insects apparently have developed various degrees of structural regularity, suggesting that the demand for skilful flight has driven the lattice structure towards increased regularity.