Frequency distributions and variation of Y chromosome haplogroups R-M269, R-S127 and R-M269(xS127) in Europe. The three panels show contour maps based on the frequencies of the different haplogroups found across Europe and western Asia: (a) R-M269, (b) R-S127 and (c) R-M269(xS127). The maps on the left are based on the frequencies of the SNPs in all populations marked on the map (data in electronic supplementary material, table S1 and figure S1). The graphs on the right show the relationship between longitude and bootstrap variance based on 10 STRs for all populations with at least 10 individuals carrying that SNP. The R2 and associated p-values are shown for the correlations in the graphs. The population codes are detailed in table 1 and electronic supplementary material, table S1.
Relationship between time to the most recent common ancestor, T, and mutation rate, μ, for various STR subsets. (a) Estimates of T for the R-S127 haplogroup. Points are labelled with the subset of STRs used to calculate T and are detailed in electronic supplementary material, table S4. (b) The same data, but this time together with estimates of T based on comparisons of Y chromosome A and B haplogroups (see main text).
Fifteen Y-STRs with mutation rates, range of alleles and estimate of duration of linearity. All STRs investigated in this study are shown with their mutation rates (μ), estimated from Ballantyne et al. , and range of observed alleles, R, with 95% CI is taken from the YHRD . θ(R)/2μ is an estimate of the duration of linearity of an STR (see §2).