Calibrated phylogeny of ceratosaurian theropods. Thick grey lines indicate major ghost lineages in noasaurids and abelisaurids, resulting from the phylogenetic relationships of Eoabelisaurus. Dashed line in Spinostropheus indicates stratigraphic uncertainty for this taxon . For abelisaurids, outlines of continents indicate geographical distribution.
Limb proportions in several theropods, showing reduction of distal elements of the forelimb. Femur and forelimb of the basal theropod Dilophosaurus (left), basal abelisaurid Eoabelisaurus (middle) and the derived abelisaurid Carnotaurus (right). Drawn to same femoral length for comparison.