Ground geckos of the genus Paroedura are a distinctive component of Madagascar's herpetofauna that evolved in situ during the island's lengthy isolation. Here a male of an undescribed or unrecognized species cleanses his eye with his tongue. New research indicates diversification rate declines are a ubiquitous feature of at least seven reptile and amphibian clades endemic to the island. These results suggest that adaptive radiation was an important contributor to Madagascar's astonishing biodiversity. See the paper by Daniel P. Scantlebury, published in Proceedings B (http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.1109) Photo credit: Daniel P. Scantlebury 2013.