The diversity of ant biotic interactions. (a,b) Ant/ant interactions. (a) Slavemaking ant Protomognathus americanus (black) and its host Temnothorax longispinosus. (b) Parabiosis between Crematogaster modiglianii (small, left) and Camponotus rufifemur (large, right). (c,d) Ant/other arthropod interactions. (c) ant/lycaenid interaction. (d) The rove beetle Diploeciton nevermanni is a social parasite of the army ant Neivamyrmex pilosus. (e–k) Ant/plant interactions. (e) Ant foraging on Senna scabriuscula extrafloral nectary. (f) Pheidole pallidula ant dispersing a Borderea chouardii seed. (g) Philidris nagasau ant farm of Squamellaria plants in Fiji. (h) Pseudomyrmex concolor living in Tachigali domatium and cultivating Chaetothyriales fungi inside the domatium (black patches). (i–k) Ant/pitcher plant interactions (Nepenthes). (i) Ant foraging on peristome nectaries. When it rains, the peristome undulates with raindrops, acting as a mechanism to catch ant prey. (j,k) Mutualistic interaction between Camponotus schmitzi and Nepenthes bicalcarata. (j) Camponotus schmitzi ants live inside the hollow petiole of N. bicalcarata (arrowhead) and are able to walk inside the pitcher and swim to steal Nepenthes prey (k). (l,m) Ant/fungus interaction (see also (l) Trachymyrmex ants farm fungus cultivar). (m) Allomerus ants cultivate fungi to make carton scaffold to catch insect prey, here a horsefly. (n) Ant/microorganism interaction. Blochmannia endosymbionts in bacteriocytes (green) in the midgut tisue of a pupa (shortly after pupation) of Camponotus floridanus ants. Red cells are midgut cells that do not (yet) contain any bacteria. Photo credit: (a) Susanne Foitzik. (b) Florian Menzel. (c) School of Ecology and Conservation, UAS Bangalore, India. (d) Christoph von Beeren. (e) Brigitte Marazzi. (f) María García, Xavier Espadaler, Jens Olesen. (g) Guillaume Chomicki. (h) Rumsais Blatrix. (i,k) Ulrike Bauer. (l) Scott Solomon. (m) Claude Delhaye. (n) Sascha Stoll.