@article {Bonhoeffer715,
author = { and and },
title = {The curse of the pharaoh : the evolution of virulence in pathogens with long living propagules},
volume = {263},
number = {1371},
pages = {715--721},
year = {1996},
doi = {10.1098/rspb.1996.0107},
publisher = {The Royal Society},
abstract = {We used a mathematical model to evaluate the hypothesis that parasites and pathogens with long living propagules should evolve high levels of virulence, i. e. high rates of pathogen-induced host mortality. Our model shows that the optimal level of virulence is independent of the longevity of the propagules either: (i) if the density or the prevalence of infected hosts is in (or fluctuates around) equilibrium; or (ii) if the death rate of the infected host population is high compared with that of the propagules. The level of virulence that maximizes the parasite{\textquoteright}s fitness (Malthusian parameter) increases with increasing longevity of its propagules only if the host-parasite system has not reached equilibrium and the death rate of the propagules is high relative to that of the infected hosts. Therefore, for parasites that have recently invaded a susceptible host population, greater propagule longevity may initially favour higher virulence; but once the equilibrium is reached the optimal virulence is independent of propagule longevity.},
issn = {0962-8452},
URL = {http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/263/1371/715},
eprint = {http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/263/1371/715.full.pdf},
journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences}
}