Table 1

Domoic acid concentrations measured in samples collected from stranded California sea lions suffering from acute or chronic effects of domoic acid toxicity. (Note. Urine and serum were tested by direct competitive domoic acid ELISA followed by LC-MS/MS for confirmation and faeces were examined for toxic P. australis diatoms by scanning electron microscopy and were tested for domoic acid using HPLC.)

sample typeacute toxicitychronic effects


no. positive/no. testeddomoic acid concentration (μg ml−1)no. positive/no. testeddomoic acid concentration (μg ml−1)
faeces7/161–82.022/41.6–4.15
urine43/670.01–3.722/140.002–0.11
serum10/290.004–0.21/130.003