Table 2.

Results of the impact of lizard removals on I. pacificus ticks. (Data from generalized linear mixed-effect models (GLMMs) are shown for larval I. pacificus in the year of removals (t) and nymphal density, density of infected nymphs and nymphal infection prevalence results are displayed for the year following removals (t + 1). The baseline treatments are experiment: control, period: before, site: CCSP. The experiment × period interaction is the test of the experimental effect of lizard removal (experiment: removal × period: after) and is indicated in bold. The z-value is the Wald statistic. The GLMM model-predicted difference in effect size between the removal and control plots is given as delta effect size in the indicated units.)

parameterdensity of larvae (DOL)density of nymphs (DON)density of infected nymphs (DIN)nymphal infection prevalence (NIP)
random effect variance and standard deviation
 plotσplot0.09 (0.30)0.091 (0.31)2.09e6 (1.5e2)0.11 (0.33)
 yearσyear0.01 (0.12)0.023 (0.15)0.52 (0.72)0.10 (0.31)
fixed effects estimates (z-values), standard deviation and significance level
 interceptα6.36 (40.52)***4.63 (27.99)***1.47(0.22)***−2.73 (−11.71)***
 experimentβ1−0.28 (−1.73)0.06 (0.36)0.53 (0.04)*0.37 (1.72)
 periodβ2−0.51 (−4.37)***0.31 (1.76)0.45 (0.16)−0.87 (−2.08)*
 siteβ30.02 (0.16)−0.02 (0.17)0.30 (0.23)n.a.
experiment × periodβ40.45 (17.83)***−0.33 (5.77)***−1.28(0.43)**0.11 (0.38)
predicted delta effect size (removal plots−control plots)
no. per plotno. per plotno. per plotper cent infection
δ effect size171.01***−14.06***−4.30***1.28
  • *p < 0.05.

  • **p < 0.01.

  • ***p < 0.001.