response species weighted |

proportion of social species | 40.71 | <0.001 | *y* = 37.55 + 0.03 × altitude |

proportion of non-parasitic species | 0.80 | 0.377 | n.s. |

proportion of ground-nesting species | 6.06 | 0.019 | *y* = 62.56 + 9.84e−3 × altitude |

proportion of multivoltine species | 2.08 | 0.159 | n.s. |

proportion of oligolectic species | 2.05 | 0.162 | n.s. |

mean ITD (mm) | 46.07 | <0.001 | *y* = 2.36 + 9.26e−4 × altitude |

mean altitudinal range (m) | 17.07 | <0.001 | *y* = 696.65 + 0.26 × altitude |

mean geographical distribution | 8.27 | 0.01 | *y* = 233.33 − 0.03 × altitude |

response abundance-weighted |

proportion of social species | 21.52 | <0.001 | *y* = 67.64 + 0.02 × altitude |

proportion of non-parasitic species | 0.27 | 0.609 | n.s. |

proportion of ground-nesting species | 10.93 | 0.002 | *y* = 59.62 + 0.01 × altitude |

proportion of multivoltine species | 2.47 | 0.126 | n.s. |

proportion of oligolectic species | 0.46 | 0.501 | n.s. |

mean ITD (mm) | 16.74 | <0.001 | *y* = 2.90 + 9.03e − 4 × altitude |

mean altitudinal range (m) | 1.85 | 0.184 | n.s. |

mean geographical distribution | 9.13 | 0.005 | *y* = 319.44 − 0.05 × altitude |