Table 1.

Landscape and local effects on bee diversity and abundances in grasslands and oilseed rape (OSR). Results are from ANCOVAs. Landscape-scale predictors were %OSR fields and %semi-natural habitats in 1 km radius. Local predictors were diversity of flowering plant species and presence of OSR (grasslands adjacent to OSR versus grasslands isolated from OSR) for bees in grasslands, and OSR field size and presence of grassland (OSR adjacent to grassland versus OSR isolated from grassland) for bees in OSR. Predictors are shown when p < 0.1 or when they are part of a significant interaction.

d.f.MSFp
study 1: bees in grasslands
abundance of solitary bees
  flower diversity10.195.10.032
  presence of OSR1<0.01<0.10.958
  flower diversity × presence of OSR0.133.50.072
  residuals280.04
abundance of bumble-bees
  %OSR (1 km)10.153.10.090
  residuals300.05
diversity of solitary bees
  flower diversity10.042.70.109
  presence of OSR10.010.80.382
  %OSR (1 km)10.042.90.098
  flower diversity × presence of OSR10.1611.90.002
  residuals260.36
study 2: bees in OSR fields
abundance of solitary bees
  OSR field size11.7410.00.003
  presence of grassland10.675.70.023
  residuals310.11
abundance of bumble-bees
  %OSR (1 km)10.717.10.012
  residuals323.19
abundance of honeybees
  none
diversity of bees
  OSR field size10.123.70.062
  presence of grassland10.196.00.020
  %OSR (1 km)10.309.80.004
  residuals300.03