Table 3.

Studies that report proximate causes of declines in abundance or fitness associated with El Niño-Southern Oscilliation (ENSO) events.

specieslocationhypothesized proximate cause of declinereference
fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agonidae)BorneoENSO event causes obligate host trees (Ficus sp.) to fail to produce inflorescences, resulting in local extinction of pollinating wasps[73]
coralsPanama and Ecuadorhigh sea surface temperatures cause bleaching and mortality[74]
butterflyfishIndian Oceanclimate-related loss of coral food source[75]
toad (Bufo boreas)Western USAwarming reduces water depth in ponds, which increases ultraviolet-B exposure of embryos, which in turn increases risk of fungal infection[76]