Table 1.

Divergence times and 95% HPD estimated with uncorrelated rates in MCMCtree and BEAST using seven fossil constraints.

node/divergenceMCMCtreeBEAST
node age95% HPDnode age95% HPD
1. Neognathae/Palaeognathae131122–138127114–133
2. ostrich/other palaeognaths9789–1089773–119
3. (moa, tinamou)/other palaeognaths8477–918159–105
4. rheas/(emu, cassowary, kiwis)8174–847652–101
5. kiwis/(emu, cassowary)7871–837350–100
6. moa/tinamous6963–766547–87
7. moa1912–27218–39
8. little bush moa/crested moa95.2–148.92–20
9. tinamous4537–544124–61
10. erect crested tinamou/Chilean tinamou3626–453015–48
11. greater rhea/lesser rhea4.01.9–7.45.81–15
12. emu/cassowary2725–312925–34
13. kiwis4.93.0–7.96.32.3–14
14. great spotted kiwi/little spotted kiwi1.40.6–2.71.850.3–4.9
15. (North Island brown kiwi, rowi)/tokoeka1.91.0–3.22.50.7–5.6
16. North Island brown kiwi/rowi1.20.6–2.21.40.3–3.3
17. Neoaves/Galloanserae10797–11810691–121
18. chicken/(white-fronted goose, magpie goose)8374–948371–98
19. white-fronted goose/magpie goose7065–796867–71
20. Neoaves8175–898371–98
21. passerines/(swifts, hummingbirds)7669–847662–93
22. rifleman/zebra finch5140–674926–69
23. swift/hummingbird5147–535047–53
24. shorebirds/waterbirds7772–857969–92
25. shorebirds6859–756346–80
26. jacana/snipe3632–433332–37
27. loon/other waterbirds7266–807265–83
28. stork/(penguins, petrel)6963–776763–74
29. petrel/penguins6762–766562–70
30. penguins137.0–22142.4–34