Table 1.

Summary of main fixed effects treatment (factor with two levels: flower strip or wheat control strip), distance from flower or control strip (continuous variable) and their interaction on wheat plant damage (arcsine-square root-transformed), cereal leaf beetle (CLB) density and the density of different natural enemy groups in adjacent winter wheat fields and within the strips themselves (only natural enemies). Degrees of freedom (d.f.), χ2-values and p-values from likelihood-ratio tests of the model selection procedure (see Material and methods section) are shown. p-values of explanatory variables that were included in the final model are in bold lettering.

within winter wheatwithin strip
pest density
 CLB larvae
 treatment × distance10.510.474
 CLB adults
 treatment × distance11.610.205
plant damage
 wheat plant damage by CLB
 treatment × distance12.790.098
natural enemy abundance
 ground beetles (adults)
 treatment × distance19.480.002
 predatory bugs (adults and nymphs)
 treatment × distance10.000.989
 lacewings (adults)
 treatment × distance13.260.071
 lacewings (larvae)
 Treatment × Distance10.010.909
 ladybirds (adults)
 treatment × distance12.240.134
 ladybirds (larvae)
 treatment × distance10.000.964