Table 1.

Main types of ant biotic interactions.

partners involvedtype of interactionreferences
ant/ant interactions
 within colony interactionscooperative[3]
 between colony interactionsantagonistic[3]
 between species interactionsmutualistic (parabiosis); parasitic (social parasitism)[4,5]; figure 1a,b
ant/other arthropod interactions
 ant/hemipteran interactionsmutualistic to parasitic[6,7]
 ant/butterfly interactionsmutualistic to parasitic[8]; figure 1c
 ant/mollusc interactionsparasitic[9]
 ant/diptera interactionsparasitic[10]
 ant/spider interactionsparasitic[11]
 ant/beetle interactionsparasitic[1214]; figure 1d
 ant/wasp interactionsparasitic[15]
 ant/silverfishes interactionsparasitic[16]
ant/plant interactions
 extrafloral nectary/antmutualistic[17]; figure 1e
 elaiosome-based dispersal by antsmutualistic[18]; figure 1f
 seed predation (harvester ants)parasitic[19]
 domatium-based symbiosesmutualistic (rarely parasitic)[20,21]; figure 1h
 plant farmingmutualistic[22,23]; figure 1g
 ant/pitcher plant interactionsmutualistic or parasitic[24,25]; figure 1i–k
ant/fungus interactions
 attine-fungus farmingmutualistic (parasitic [Escovopsis])[26,27]; figure 1l
 ant-Chaetothyriales-domatium interactionsmutualistic[28,29]; figure 1h
 ant–Chaetothyriales–carton interactionsmutualistic[30]; figure 1m
ant/microorganism interactions
 ant/bacterial endosymbiontsmutualistic or parasitic[3133]; figure 1n
 ant/bacterial gut symbiontsmutualistic (but also likely commensal and parasitic)[6]
 ant/fungal gut symbiontsmutualistic[6]